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Chewing Gum and Bubble Gum
Above sketch by courtesy of Pulaski Academy
Sketch below by courtesy of Energy Info.Admin, at eia.doe.gov
"Research from around the world has shown conclusively that chewing sugarfree gum stimulates the production of saliva, which helps to neutralise the plaque acids that cause dental caries.
Chewing gum can improve memory, say UK psychologists.
They found that people who chewed throughout tests of both long-term and short-term memory produced significantly better scores than people who did not.
"These results provide the first evidence that chewing gum can improve long-term and working memory," says Andrew Scholey of the University of Northumbria in Newcastle, UK.
One third of the 75 adults tested chewed gum during the 20-minute battery of memory and attention tests.
The gum-chewers' scores were 24 per cent higher than the controls' on tests of immediate word recall, and 36 per cent higher on tests of delayed word recall.
"The findings are intriguing, although it is clear that questions remain to be addressed," says Kim Graham of the Medical Research Council's Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit in Cambridge, UK. "In particular: what is the mechanism by which chewing improves memory?"
Chewing it over
There are three main potential explanations, says Scholey.
Recent research has also found that insulin receptors in the hippocampus may be involved in memory.
But there could be a simpler answer.
But a thorough explanation for the findings will have to account for why some aspects of memory improved but others did not, Graham says.
Scholey presented his research at the annual meeting of the British Psychological Society in Blackpool, Lancashire, UK.
14:30 13 March 2002
The world market for chewing gum is estimated to be 560,000 tons per year, representing approximately US $5 billion. Some 374 billion pieces of chewing gum are sold worldwide every year, representing 187 billion hours of gum-chewing if each piece of gum is chewed for 30 minutes.
Chewing gum can thus be expected to have an influence on oral health.
Such claims are allowed for products having been shown in vivo not to depress plaque pH below 5.7, neither during nor for 30 minutes after the consumption.
The story of gum
Who was the first person to chew gum? Where was chewing gum invented?
Natural gum is discovered
In A.D. 50, Ancient Greeks were believed to chew mastiche, tree resin from the Mastic tree.
The American Indians discovered another natural form of gum-like resin by cutting the bark of spruce trees.
Spruce gum continued to be sold in 19th century America until the 1850s when paraffin wax became the new popular base for chewing gum.
Chewing gum evolves
Modern chewing gum products appeared in 1869.
Gum made with chicle and similar latexes soon became more popular than spruce gum or paraffin gum.
Bubble blowing begins
Bubble gum was invented in 1928 by Walter Diemer, a cost analyst for the Fleer Company.
Your chewing choices
Today, synthetic materials replace natural gum ingredients to create a chewing gum with better quality, texture and taste. There are more than 1,000 varieties of gum manufactured and sold in the United States. You can find:
The gum base is made of man-made latex and divided into two major categories, chewing and bubble gum, with the latter having more elasticity.
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, School of Dentistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
The table below shows that sugar free gum can be part of a calorie controlled diet.
By courtesy of annecollins.com
Each gum has its own specific formula that makes it unique. The exact combinations of ingredients are carefully guarded company secrets. Common ingredients in chewing gum are: powdered sugar, gum base (a combination of food-grade synthetic and natural ingredients that make gum smooth and chewy,) glucose syrup, softeners, flavoring and coloring. Sugar substitutes replace powdered sugar and glucose syrup in sugarless gum.
Below is a basic step by step process of how chewing gum is made:
By courtesy of NACGM
All gum and its wrappers should always be disposed of in proper trash receptacles, but unfortunately, gum is sometimes accidentally dropped on the carpet or on our clothes. The following are a few suggestions that may help with gum removal:
For washable clothing, try scraping off any excess gum with a dull knife and then rubbing the area with ice until the remaining gum rolls off into a ball.
Another method is to seal the dry garment in a plastic bag and place it in the freezer. After the garment is frozen, remove and gently scrape with a dull knife.
There are also natural solvent extracts from citrus peels which may work. Be sure to test the solvent on an inconspicuous area of your garment first to ensure color fastness, and read all manufacturer's instructions before use.
You can also try using an extra strength deep-heating rub. Evenly spread the deep-heating rub on the opposite side of the gum residue. Heat the area covered with the rub with a blow dryer for 30 seconds. Immediately after turning off the dryer, the gum residue should easily peel off. Your garment should then be laundered as usual. Be sure to test the rub on an inconspicuous area of your garment first to ensure color fastness.
First, try scraping any excess gum off your carpet with a dull knife and then rubbing the area with ice until the remaining gum rolls off into a ball.
You might try using an extra strength deep-heating rub to remove the gum. First, heat the gum residue on your carpet with a blow dryer for one or two minutes. Then, using four-inch squares of plastic (sandwich bags will work nicely) remove as much gum as possible. You may have to apply more heat if the gum hardens. Continue to use the plastic squares to remove the gum. This part of the process should remove 80% of the gum residue.
Next, spread half a teaspoon of the extra strength deep-heating rub evenly over all the gum residue. Heat with a blow dryer set on high for 30 seconds. After turning off the dryer, immediately use the plastic squares in a circular motion (alternating between clockwise and counter-clock wise movements) to remove the remaining stain. Then apply a mild detergent and water solution with paper towels or a cloth rag, and allow the area to air dry.
It is important that you try a small amount of the deep-heating rub on an inconspicuous area of your carpet first to ensure color fastness. Be sure to keep deep-heating rub out of the reach of children and follow all safety precautions as recommended by the manufacturer.
Natural solvent extracts from citrus peels often work well to remove gum from hair. Be sure to read all manufacturer's instructions before use. If a citrus peel solvent is not available, mineral oil, cooking oil or peanut butter sometimes work. Add a small amount and kneed the gum with your fingers in order to soften and disperse gum, pull out gradually as gum softens, then rinse with soap and water. These products are helpful, but may leave a residue on the hair and require additional effort to wash hair after gum removal.
From concrete sidewalks, patios or other hard surfaces
Many commercial organizations and municipalities have found chewing gum removal from hard surfaces effective with the use of a power washer. For more information about power washer gum removal e-mail NACGM at email@example.com
* These are not guaranteed methods for gum removal.
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